Critical Thinking

Use this link to take you to a page on the old MindTools site. The old page contains a short slide show. You may need to click on the button to start the slideshow and then enable Flash on your browser to view the show.

This is a very brief introduction to six of the standard errors in informal reasoning:

Ad Hominem Argument
Argument from Authority
Cum hoc Fallacy
False Dilemma
Fallacy of Division

There are MANY resources available the will help you understand these fallacies. Do not be deceived by the apparently simple nature of these fallacies. The examples used are selected to make the principles clear. In actual arguments, it is often very difficult to detect errors in informal reasoning. Some philosophers also question whether or not all of these fallacies are really as incorrect as they are often made to appear. Understanding them in depth and making awareness of them a permanent part of your analytical skills is really a lifelong project. This page will be replaced with new material in the future.



By Anthony Birch

Anthony Birch, Ph.D. has taught Business Ethics, Introduction to Ethics, Contemporary Ethics, and Introduction to Philosophy at a number of colleges and universities. He is the co-author of How to Ace Your Online Course, available at Amazon.

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